State of the Salmon

Endangered Listings - Definitions


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Federal, Canada

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC)
Status Definitions

Extinct (X) - A species that no longer exists.
Extirpated (XT) - A species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere.
Endangered (E) - A species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.
Threatened (T) - A species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.
Special Concern (SC) - A species that is particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events but is not an endangered or threatened species.
Data Deficient (DD) - A species for which there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction.
Not At Risk (NAR) - A species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk.
Species - Any indigenous species, subspecies, variety, or geographically or genetically distinct population of wild fauna and flora.
Source: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2003. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Available here . (Accessed 11 September 2003).

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British Columbia

Conservation Data Centre (CDC), Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management
Status Definitions

EXTINCT: Species that no longer exist.
RED: Includes any indigenous species or subspecies that have, or are candidates for Extirpated, Endangered, or Threatened status in British Columbia. Extirpated taxa no longer exist in the wild in British Columbia, but do occur elsewhere. Endangered taxa are facing imminent extirpation or extinction. Threatened taxa are likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed. Not all Red-listed taxa will necessarily become formally designated. Placing taxa on these lists flags them as being at risk and requiring investigation.
BLUE: Includes any indigenous species or subspecies considered to be of Special Concern (formerly Vulnerable) in British Columbia. Taxa of Special Concern have characteristics that make them particularly sensitive or vulnerable to human activities or natural events. Blue-listed taxa are at risk, but are not Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened.
YELLOW: Includes species that are apparently secure and not at risk of extinction
INTRODUCED: Also know as exotic, alien or non-native, these are species that humans transported to an area previously outside of that species' geographic range.
ACCIDENTAL:Casual or accidental visitor, not occurring annually.
Source: BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. 2003. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Available here. (Accessed 11 September 2003).

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Japan

Defintions here are based on the IUCN Red Listing Criteria.
Status Definitions

EXTINCT: A taxon considered to have become extinct in Japan.
EXTINCT IN THE WILD: A taxon known to survive only under conservation or in captivity.
CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (Threatened I): A taxon facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future.
ENDANGERED (Threatened I): A taxon facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future though not critically endangered.
VULNERABLE (Threatened II): A taxon facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future though not critically endangered or endangered.
NEAR THREATENED: A taxon which can qualify for VULNERABLE in the future depending on its habitat conditions, although it is not facing a high risk of extinction at this present stage.
DATA DEFFICIENT: A taxon about which there is not adequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction.
THREATENED LOCAL POPULATION: A taxon facing a high risk of extinction in a certain locality among its limited specific habitats.
Source: Yamaha Motor Co., LTD (Site Accessed 22 September 2003). Date Unknown. Iwata, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

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Hokkaido Prefecture

Defintions here are based on the IUCN Red Listing Criteria.
Status Definitions

EXTINCT: A species or sub-species that has previously been shown to exist and live in the area.
EXTINCT IN THE WILD: A species or sub-species that fits the definition of an extinct species as described above, and that exists and lives only in captivity or is raised/cultured.
CRITICALLY ENDANGERED: A species or sub-species that has an extremely high probability of becoming extinct in the wild in the near future. A species or sub-species that fits one of the following:

ENDANGERED: A species or subspecies whose survival is in doubt if its current state continues. A species or subspecies that fits one of the following:

VULNERABLE: A species or subspecies that is in danger of becoming an endangered species if its current state continues. A species or subspecies that fits one of the following:

RARE: A species or subspecies whose condition does not currently warrant classification within the ranks listed above, but which have characteristics such that a change in habitat could easily cause their ranking to change. A species or subspecies that fits one of the following:

LOCAL POPULATION: A species or subspecies with a local population that is geographically isolated, or that has important bigeographical characteristics. A local population of a species or subspecies that fits one of the following:

NOTEWORTHY: A species or subspecies whose populations and habitat are both stable, and that is not in any particular danger of extinction, but still fits one of the following:

Source: Hokkaido Red Data Book Categories. [In Japanese].

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Federal, Russia

Status Definitions

Category 0
Probably extinct: taxons and populations about which there is information they lived in the territory of the Russian Federation, but for which presence has not been confirmed (for vertebrates) for the last 50 years.
Category 1
Endangered: taxons and populations whose number has decreased to a critical level with a threat of extinction in the near future.
Category 2
Decreasing in number: taxons and populations whose number is steadily decreasing with a threat of becoming endangered in the near future.
Category 3
Rare: taxons and populations that are small in number and/or have a limited territory.
Category 4
Status undetermined: taxons and populations that require special protection measures but there is currently not sufficient data to classify their status.
Category 5
Rehabilitating and being rehabilitated: taxons and populations whose numbers and distribution are approaching conditions when they will no longer require protection and recovery measures.
Source: Bartenev, O.S., Ed. 2001. Krasnaia kniga Rossiiskoi Federatsii (zhivotnye) [Red Book of the Russian Federation, animals]. pp. 8-9. Moscow, Astrel'.

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Federal, United States

Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. � 1531
Status Definitions

Species: any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife which interbreeds when mature.
Endangered: any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range
Threatened: any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
Candidate: any species for which there's adequate information to warrant proposing a listing but have not yet been proposed for listing
Warranted but precluded: any species for which data supports need to list but other species are determined to be of higher priority (reevaluated annually until a not warranted or warranted finding is made.
Not Warranted: any species for which data does not support a need to list
Source: Cornell Law School (Accessed 22 September 2003), Legal Information Institute. Date unknown. U.S. Code Collection, Legal Sec. 1532. - Definitions. Ithaca, New York, U.S.

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State of California

California Endangered Species Act, Fish and Game Code, Sections 2050 et seq.
Status Definitions

Endangered: a native species or subspecies of a bird, mammal, fish, amphibian, reptile, or plant which is in serious danger of becoming extinct throughout all, or a significant portion, of its range due to one or more causes, including loss of habitat, change in habitat, overexploitation, predation, competition, or disease.
Threatened: a native species or subspecies of a bird, mammal, fish, amphibian, reptile, or plant that, although not presently threatened with extinction, is likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future in the absence of the special protection and management efforts.
Candidate: a native species or subspecies of a bird, mammal, fish, amphibian, reptile, or plant that the commission has formally noticed as being under review by the department for addition to either the list of endangered species or the list of threatened species, or a species for which the commission has published a notice of proposed regulation to add the species to either list.
Source: California Department of Fish and Game (Accessed 16 September 2003), Habitat Conservation Planning Branch. Date unknown. Fish and Game Code Section 2050-2068. Sacramento, California, U.S.

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State of Idaho

Status Definitions

Endangered: Any species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its Idaho range.
Threatened: Any species likely to be classified as Endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its Idaho range.
Species of Special Concern: Native species which are either low in numbers, limited in distribution, or have suffered significant habitat losses. The list includes three categories:
·  Priority Species - species which meet one or more of the criteria above AND for which Idaho presently contains or formerly constituted a significant portion of their range; Peripheral Species - species which meet one or more of the criteria above but whose populations in Idaho are on the edge of a breeding range that falls largely outside the state; and
·  Undetermined Status Species - species that might be rare in the state but for which there is little information on their population status, distribution, and/or habitat requirements. Source: Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Accessed 17 September 2003). Date Unknown. Boise, Idaho, U.S.

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State of Oregon

Oregon Endangered Species Act, Or. Rev. Stat. � 496.171
Status Definitions

Endangered: an animal threatened with extinction within all or a significant portion of its range.
Threatened: an animal that could become endangered within the foreseeable future within all or a portion of its range.
Sensitive: wildlife species, subspecies, or populations that are subject to a decline in number of sufficient magnitude to qualify their listing as Threatened due to loss in quantity or quality of habitat or other factors.
Wildlife: fish and wildlife species, subspecies, and populations.
Source: Oregon Secretary of State (Accessed 16 September 2003)., Oregon State Archives, Oregon Date Unknown. Administrative Rules, OAR 635-100-0001. Salem, Oregon, U.S.

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State of Washington

Status Definitions

Endangered: "any wildlife species native to the state of Washington that is seriously threatened with extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range within the state" (WAC 232-12-297, Section 2.5)
Threatened : "any wildlife species native to the state of Washington that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout a significant portion of its range within the state without cooperative management or removal of threats." (WAC 232-12-297, Section 2.5)
Sensitive: "any wildlife species native to the state of Washington that is vulnerable or declining and is likely to become endangered or threatened throughout a significant portion of its range within the state without cooperative management or removal of threats." (WAC 232-12-297, Section 2.5)
Candidate: fish and wildlife species that the Department of Fish and Wildlife will review for possible listing as State Endangered, Threatened, or Sensitive. A species will be considered for designation as a State Candidate if sufficient evidence suggests that its status may meet the listing criteria defined for State Endangered, Threatened, or Sensitive.
Species of Concern : species listed as State Endangered, State Threatened, State Sensitive, or State Candidate, as well as species listed or proposed for listing by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Marine Fisheries Service.
Source: Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Accessed 16 September 2003), Endangered Species Section. Date unknown. Olympia, Washington, U.S.

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